PDF Fundamentals of Multimedia

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Finally, Lossless Image Compression is examined specifically. In this chapter we examine compression algorithms such that recovered input data cannot be exactly reconstructed from compressed version.

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What we have, then, is a tradeoff between efficient compression versus a less accurate version of the input data. This tradeoff is captured in the Rate-Distortion Theory. Most of the loss occurs in quantization, and we introduce both Uniform and Nonuniform Scalar Quantization, and then Vector Quantization. We study DCT in great length and provide several examples.

Recent years have seen an explosion in the availability of digital images. In this chapter, we examine some current image compression standards and demonstrate how techniques presented in Chaps. A video can be viewed as a sequence of images stacked in the temporal dimension. Since the frame rate of the video is often relatively high, the contents of consecutive frames are usually similar. In other words, video has temporal redundancy. All digital video compression algorithms including H. In this chapter the fundamentals of motion compensation based video compression are introduced.

We cover sufficient details of H. These form the foundation for all modern video compression standards.

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In MPEG-1 and -2, bidirectional search for motion vectors is introduced. Moreover, it supports various scalable codings such as SNR, spatial, temporal, and their combination. MPEG-4 and -7 studied the issue of video coding based on video objects. Although the visual object-based video representation and compression approach developed in MPEG-4 and 7 have not been commonly used in current popular standards such as H. We introduced basic video compression techniques in Chaps. In this chapter, we introduce the newer video compression standards H.

Other new features include quarter-pixel accuracy in motion vectors, predictive coding in intra frames, in-loop deblocking filtering, and Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding CABAC. Moreover, H.

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With their superior compression performance over H. In this chapter, compression of audio information is reviewed, with special consideration paid to speech compression.

To begin with, we recall some of the issues covered in Chap. Here, this is combined with techniques that exploit the temporal redundancy present in audio signals. In speech coding, a number of standards have evolved and we set these out here, including some of their fundamental strategies. The properties of Vocoders are examined, including the notion of phase insensitivity, channels, and formants. In this chapter, we consider the set of tools for audio compression applicable to general audio, such as music, as opposed to specifically speech compression developed under the aegis of the Motion Picture Experts Group, MPEG.

Surprisingly, this subject has much to do with psychology, specifically within the field of aural sense perception—psychoacoustics. The phenomena of frequency masking and temporal masking are exploited in a waveform coding approach that makes use of a psychoacoustic model of hearing, with the result generally referred to as perceptual coding.


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We begin the study of psychoacoustics as it applies here with the determination of the equal-loudness relations, which leads to a discussion of frequency masking. Critical Bands are introduced as well as the Bark Unit. Temporal Masking is a familiar phenomenon from our own experience. Computer communication networks are essential to the modern computing environment we know and have come to rely upon.

Multimedia communications and networking share all the major issues and technologies of computer communication networks. Indeed, the evolution of the Internet, particularly in the past two decades, has been largely driven by the ever-growing demands from numerous conventional and new generation multimedia applications.

As such, multimedia communications and networking have become a very active area for research and industrial development. This chapter will start with a review of the common terminologies and techniques in modern computer communication networks, specifically the Internet, followed by an introduction to various network services and protocols for multimedia communications and content sharing, since they are becoming a central part of most contemporary multimedia systems.

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Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Chapter 1 - Multimedia Fundamentals 1. Concept and Structure Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Animation, Motion Video 8. It is a basic element in any multimedia system which may be a part of the interface or a file.

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They may be raster or vector graphics. They are recorded via audio capturing devices and are stored digitally. Video in multimedia refers to recorded videos such as film, documentaries and computer generated animations.

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The animation may be hand drawn or computer based. These days, this has become the standard. Computer Based Animation Steps 1. Concept Design 2. Story Outline 3. Script 4. Storyboard 5.

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