This film features engineers and an architect discussing specific types of section drawings and their importance as visualisation tools for designers. Orthographic projections are among the most commonly used in the engineering industry to represent 3D components, structures and spaces in 2d.
This film shows how drawing skills and techniques are applied to enable quick conversations between engineers, architects and others in the design of a building The Templeman Library, University of Kent. The Drawing gym is trade marked and copyrighted by Trevor Flynn.
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Engineering drawing | Article about Engineering drawing by The Free Dictionary
View Engineering Sketches. This convention may take some experience. There are many times when the interior details of an object cannot be seen from the outside figure 8. We can get around this by pretending to cut the object on a plane and showing the "sectional view".
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The sectional view is applicable to objects like engine blocks, where the interior details are intricate and would be very difficult to understand through the use of "hidden" lines hidden lines are, by convention, dotted on an orthographic or isometric drawing. To prepare a drawing, one can use manual drafting instruments figure 12 or computer-aided drafting or design, or CAD.
The basic drawing standards and conventions are the same regardless of what design tool you use to make the drawings. In learning drafting, we will approach it from the perspective of manual drafting. If the drawing is made without either instruments or CAD, it is called a freehand sketch.
An isometric view of an "assembled" pillow-block bearing system is shown in figure It corresponds closely to what you actually see when viewing the object from a particular angle. We cannot tell what the inside of the part looks like from this view. We can also show isometric views of the pillow-block being taken apart or "disassembled" figure This allows you to see the inner components of the bearing system.
Isometric drawings can show overall arrangement clearly, but not the details and the dimensions. A cross-sectional view portrays a cut-away portion of the object and is another way to show hidden components in a device. Imagine a plane that cuts vertically through the center of the pillow block as shown in figure Then imagine removing the material from the front of this plane, as shown in figure This is how the remaining rear section would look.
Difference Between Drawing and Engineering Drawing
Diagonal lines cross-hatches show regions where materials have been cut by the cutting plane. This cross-sectional view section A-A, figure 17 , one that is orthogonal to the viewing direction, shows the relationships of lengths and diameters better. These drawings are easier to make than isometric drawings.
Seasoned engineers can interpret orthogonal drawings without needing an isometric drawing, but this takes a bit of practice. The top "outside" view of the bearing is shown in figure It is an orthogonal perpendicular projection. Notice the direction of the arrows for the "A-A" cutting plane. A half-section is a view of an object showing one-half of the view in section, as in figure 19 and The diagonal lines on the section drawing are used to indicate the area that has been theoretically cut.
These lines are called section lining or cross-hatching. The lines are thin and are usually drawn at a degree angle to the major outline of the object. The spacing between lines should be uniform. A second, rarer, use of cross-hatching is to indicate the material of the object. One form of cross-hatching may be used for cast iron, another for bronze, and so forth. More usually, the type of material is indicated elsewhere on the drawing, making the use of different types of cross-hatching unnecessary.
Step 1: How to Start
Usually hidden dotted lines are not used on the cross-section unless they are needed for dimensioning purposes. Also, some hidden lines on the non-sectioned part of the drawings are not needed figure 12 since they become redundant information and may clutter the drawing. The cross-section on the right of figure 22 is technically correct. However, the convention in a drawing is to show the view on the left as the preferred method for sectioning this type of object. The purpose of dimensioning is to provide a clear and complete description of an object.
A complete set of dimensions will permit only one interpretation needed to construct the part. Dimensioning should follow these guidelines. The dimension line is a thin line, broken in the middle to allow the placement of the dimension value, with arrowheads at each end figure An arrowhead is approximately 3 mm long and 1 mm wide.
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That is, the length is roughly three times the width. An extension line extends a line on the object to the dimension line. The first dimension line should be approximately 12 mm 0. Extension lines begin 1. A leader may also be used to indicate a note or comment about a specific area. When there is limited space, a heavy black dot may be substituted for the arrows, as in figure Also in this drawing, two holes are identical, allowing the "2x" notation to be used and the dimension to point to only one of the circles.
The dimensions should be placed on the face that describes the feature most clearly.
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Examples of appropriate and inappropriate placing of dimensions are shown in figure In order to get the feel of what dimensioning is all about, we can start with a simple rectangular block. With this simple object, only three dimensions are needed to describe it completely figure There is little choice on where to put its dimensions.
We have to make some choices when we dimension a block with a notch or cutout figure It is usually best to dimension from a common line or surface. This can be called the datum line of surface. The concept must first be put on paper and modeled before actual construction takes place. These aspects of the work require thorough comprehension of blueprints and schematic diagrams.
Two ways to get started
Some aerospace engineers, for example, perform regular testing and maintenance of simulators or other equipment to keep them functioning as they should. However, they still need to be able to completely understand the blueprints and diagrams of the equipment they are working on since they might need to rely on these if needed. They may also have to make a diagram about a particular part or system in the event of a malfunction so that the original designers of the equipment will be able to diagnose and solve the problem. The use of computer aided design CAD software has become standard in the world of engineering, architecture and construction these days.
It is usually included in engineering programs around the world and has greatly simplified the drawing aspect of these fields. These programs are so powerful that users simply have to know how to manipulate them and it can pretty much accomplish everything they have in conceptualized in their heads. In the workplace, engineers usually work together with CAD draftspersons that take care of doing the actual drawings using the computer software. Now you might need to do a lot of drawing when you are still in engineering school.