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OpenGL Basic Code and Functions for Beginners

However, modern OpenGL in its pure form has a very steep initial learning curve, and it is really not a good starting place for someone who is encountering 3D graphics for the first time. Some additional support is needed—if not OpenGL 1.

A Very Simple OpenGL Program

Since OpenGL 1. This chapter concentrates on the geometric aspects of 3D graphics, such as defining and transforming objects and projecting 3D scenes into 2D images.


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The images that we produce will look very unrealistic. In the next chapter, we will see how to add some realism by simulating the effects of lighting and of the material properties of surfaces. The 5 vertices of the pyramid are assigned different colors. The color of the triangles are interpolated and blend smoothly from its 3 vertices. Again, the pyramid is defined in its local space with origin at the center of the pyramid. The objects are defined in their local spaces model spaces. We need to transform them to the common world space, known as model transform.

To perform model transform, we need to operate on the so-called model-view matrix OpenGL has a few transformation matrices , by setting the current matrix mode to model-view matrix:.

Interactive Computer Graphics: A Top-Down Approach Using OpenGL

OpenGL graphics rendering pipeline performs so-called view transform to bring the world space to camera's view space. In the case of the default camera position, no transform is needed. We set our application viewport to cover the entire window, top-left corner at 0, 0 of width and height , with default minZ of 0 and maxZ of 1. We also use the same aspect ratio of the viewport for the projection view frustum to prevent distortion.

In the viewport, a pixel has x, y value as well as z-value for depth processing.

[PDF] Computer graphics with OpenGL - Semantic Scholar

The projection models the view captured by the camera. There are two types of projection: perspective projection and orthographic projection. In perspective projection, object further to the camera appears smaller compared with object of the same size nearer to the camera. In orthographic projection, the objects appear the same regardless of the z-value. Orthographic projection is a special case of perspective projection where the camera is placed very far away.

We shall discuss the orthographic projection in the later example. To set the projection, we need to operate on the projection matrix.

follow url Recall that we operated on the model-view matrix in model transform. We set the matrix mode to projection matrix and reset the matrix. We use the same aspect ratio as the viewport to avoid distortion. We set the zNear to 0. Take that note the color-cube 1. The subsequent viewport transform transforms the clipping-volume to the viewport in screen space.

The viewport is set earlier via the glViewport function. We also define the refresh period as 15 msec 66 frames per second. In main , we perform the first timer call via glutTimerFunc 0, timer, 0.


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As mentioned, OpenGL support two type of projections: perspective and orthographic. In orthographic projection, an object appears to be the same size regardless of the depth.

Orthographic is a special case of perspective projection, where the camera is placed very far away.