Mutations in the RNAi machinery genes may promote the evolution of pest resistance, which cannot be prevented by pyramiding. Further investigations are needed to identify new targets and to develop novel methods for overcoming insect resistance to dsRNA. They interact with food components and can be affected by orally administered insecticidal agents that impair substrate binding proteinaceous trypsin inhibitors or mechanisms of trypsin regulation regulatory peptides, endogenous inhibitors, miRNA.
Several studies have related trypsin structure with sensitivity to inhibitors. However, our knowledge about the signaling mechanisms that govern differential expression is still limiting. Insects in general and polyphagous phytophages and omnivores in particular are capable of adaptive responses to variation in nutrients and food defense compounds. More research is needed to understand how organisms with different feeding habits respond to diverse food and how natural selection shapes their digestive traits and trait plasticity to achieve more efficient nutrient extraction and use for growth and reproduction.
Arthropod-Plant Interactions : Novel Insights and Approaches for IPM
We are especially grateful to Dr. We also thank Dr. Comments and suggestions of two anonymous reviewers further improved the manuscript. Volume , Issue 2.
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Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Because food proteins are crucial for insect survival, growth, and fecundity, enzymes involved in their digestion have attracted the attention of fundamental entomologists studying the mechanisms and patterns of dietary specialization, and applied entomologists searching for more efficient modes of pest control.
Structural diversity of insect digestive trypsins During the last few decades, considerable effort has been made to improve our knowledge about the structural and functional characteristics of insect trypsins. Species a a AaLT, one of the late trypsins in A. With the exception of Pediculus humanus trypsins, multiple trypsins presented for several species belong to different groups. Functional diversification in trypsin multigene families Duplicated genes are under constant purifying selection which eliminates deleterious mutations, as well as positive selection which favors the fixation of advantageous ones.
Smagghe, Guy [WorldCat Identities]
Adjusting trypsin activity to variation in protein content To meet nutritional requirements at a specific developmental stage and under specific environmental conditions, insects must regulate digestive enzyme activities. Adjusting trypsin activity to plant defenses Many secondary metabolites have a negative impact on total protease and trypsin activity of phytophagous insects. Insect species a a L, Lepidoptera; C, Coleoptera.
ArNa vs. Trypsin plasticity and evolution in heterogeneous nutritional enviornments Natural diets consist of many interacting components. Trypsin as a target of pest control Considering the important role of digestive trypsin in insect growth, development, and reproduction, pest management approaches have been suggested to reduce trypsin activity through interfering with substrate binding or through decreasing trypsin synthesis and secretion. Disrupting trypsin regulation One of the pest control strategies aimed to disrupt trypsin regulation is use of TMOF Borovsky, b.
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Insect pests constitute a very important constraint in global agriculture.
In addition to the financial cost of insecticides, we are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental and health hazards associated with conventional pesticides. In more recent years biotechnology has provided additional tools to limit the damage caused by insects while at the same time minimizing or perhaps eliminating some or all of the environmental and health risks associated with chemical insecticides.
This is even more critical as pressure mounts on regulators to put sustainability, health and environmental protection high on their list of criteria for evaluating the fate of existing or new chemical pesticides. In order to harness the power of biotechnology in the context of crop protection in its broadest senses it is crucial that we develop an in depth understanding of biological, developmental and evolutionary aspects of the complex interactions between crop plants and their insect pests.
One mechanism through which plants develop resistance against their insect pests is through constant evolution of endogenous defence pathways stimulated by insect attack. To that effect bioinformatic tools and resources as well as sophisticated algorithms for data analysis and interpretation are already making an impact in terms of new potential strategies for insect pest control. Little is known about the mechanism responsible for the physiological adaptation of the insect gut when insects feed on living plant material.
However more information is emerging from studies on the digestion of plant tissues by insects feeding through different means e. More recently it has been established that insect feeding on plants are adapted to circumvent the effects of insecticidal proteins of plant origin that specifically target their digestive enzymes.